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In recent years, with the frequent occurrence of natural disasters around the world and the intensification of the development of mineral resources, the temporary resettlement housing and oilfield mine site office housing demand is growing, durable, easy handling, easy installation of container-type activities room And thus the rapid development. In line with today's building energy-saving, environmental and economic trends, to strengthen the container-type activities of the enclosure structure of the thermal insulation technology research has become the inevitable trend of the development of container-type activities.40GP Shipping Container Houses
1 Enclosure Thermal insulation design goals and standards 1.1 Indoor thermal comfort Indoor thermal comfort is a kind of subjective feeling that people are satisfied with the indoor thermal environment. Factors that affect the indoor thermal comfort, in addition to the body's metabolic rate, clothing and other subjective factors, including indoor temperature, indoor humidity, air flow velocity and environmental heat radiation and other indoor and objective factors. Environmental thermal radiation is composed of solar radiation that may enter the room and the radiant heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding walls of the house, the ground, the roof, and so on. Indoor air temperature is the main factor affecting indoor thermal comfort.
According to the national standard heating ventilation and air conditioning design specifications, residential comfort indoor thermal environment requirements as shown in Table 1.
Table 1 residential comfort thermal environment requirements indoor temperature / t: relative humidity / air flow rate in winter to enhance the insulation structure of the insulation and doors and windows of the insulation and air tightness, can effectively improve the container room indoor thermal environment.
Yangzhou Tongli Refrigeration Equipment Co., Ltd. Zhang Yujin 1.2 Building envelope insulation and insulation of the difference between the building envelope structure of the insulation performance is in the winter indoor and outdoor conditions, the envelope to prevent indoor heat transfer from the room, so that the indoor The ability to maintain proper temperature. Enclosure insulation performance refers to the ability of the envelope to maintain an appropriate temperature in the outdoor integrated temperature (synthesized by outdoor air and solar radiation) and indoor air temperature fluctuations during natural ventilation in summer. The main difference between the two is that the heat transfer process is different. Insulation performance reflects the winter from the indoor to the outdoor heat transfer process, heat insulation performance reflects the summer from the outdoor to indoor and from indoor to outdoor heat transfer process. In winter, the outdoor temperature fluctuates very little in the day, and its heat transfer process is dominated by stable heat transfer. In summer, the outdoor air temperature and solar radiation change day by day, which is periodic unstable heat transfer.20GP Shipping Container Houses
Evaluation of different indicators. The insulation properties are usually evaluated by the heat transfer coefficient K (unit: W / (m2!) Or heat transfer resistance R (unit: (m2! / W).) Insulation performance is usually measured in summer outdoor temperature conditions The internal temperature of the structure to evaluate the maximum temperature in the current energy-saving design standards, the insulation directly with the envelope of the thermal inertia index (D value) to measure the transparent glass can be used to evaluate the shading coefficient SC.
Construction measures are different. Winter insulation generally only requires to improve the thermal resistance of the envelope, can be light porous or fiber materials, through the composite insulation or self-insulation to meet energy requirements. Summer heat insulation not only requires a larger thermal resistance of the envelope, but also requires a good thermal stability (ie, D value is greater); the outer window should also increase the shading coefficient of the glass or set the shade to reduce solar radiation The
2 Enclosure insulation design requirements 2.1 insulation form In the container-type activities of the envelope insulation design, to combine the local climate conditions, container-type activities of the structural characteristics, multimodal transport conditions and economic requirements, consider Insulation shape, through the minimum total thermal resistance calculation, to determine the insulation structure and thickness. On the hot summer and cold winter area, it is necessary to consider the building outside the envelope of the insulation, but also consider the winter building exterior envelope insulation.
Due to the requirements of lifting, stacking and stamping in the process of multimodal transport, as well as restrictions on the conditions of harbor and yard operations and the environment of land and sea transportation, the enclosed structure of container type living room is usually in the form of internal insulation.
2.2 insulation materials as far as possible the use of small thermal conductivity of small thermal insulation materials to reduce the thickness of the insulation layer to improve the indoor use area.Container House
Insulation materials can be divided into inorganic insulation materials, organic thermal insulation materials and metal insulation materials 3 categories; according to the shape can be divided into fibrous insulation materials, porous (porous, bubble) -like insulation Insulation materials, layered insulation materials, such as several. The performance of thermal insulation material depends on the thermal conductivity of the material, the smaller the thermal conductivity, the better the performance of thermal insulation. The thermal conductivity of the thermal insulation material is related to its composition, apparent density, internal structure and the average temperature at heat transfer and the moisture content of the material. In the building envelope structure of the most commonly used insulation materials are molded polystyrene foam, extruded polystyrene foam, rigid polyurethane foam, rock wool board, glass wool and so on.
2.3 fire performance insulation system related to the performance of fire protection, for low-rise residential (3 below), the norms of the building members of the fire resistance requirements are 0.51.0h, the structural requirements of the building components to the most stringent norms of our country. In the container-type living room envelope structure of the internal insulation design, can follow the architectural design fire safety standards GB 16-1987, residential building code GB50368-2005 and building interior decoration design fire safety regulations GB50222-1995 the relevant provisions of the use of non-combustible or difficult Burning materials, such as mineral wool board (felt), glass wool board, etc .; if the use of foam plastic materials, the combustion performance should reach B1 level.
2.4 Health and environmental protection Insulation materials should be environmentally friendly materials that do not pollute the indoor environment, that is, does not contain radioactive, carcinogenic and other pollution of the indoor environment of the material. At present, China's control of indoor environmental pollution has a civil engineering environmental pollution control norms GB50325-2001 and indoor air quality standards GB / T 2.5 interior design container-type activities of the enclosure structure of the internal insulation design should take into account the envelope Interior decoration design, and strive to heat insulation materials and decorative materials within the integration of decoration, to achieve the renovation process of standardization, industrialization, improve the decoration of the labor productivity, enhance the quality and level of decoration.
In the process of multimodal transport, container-type activities by the lifting of lifting, holding, stacking and other shipping operations and land and sea transport bumps and vibration and many other factors, the box will inevitably produce deformation. In order to prevent the decoration of the interior material and its joints, the interior decoration materials should adopt the decorative materials with high transverse and longitudinal flexural modulus and some toughness, and can not be directly decorated with brittle materials such as tile veneer and stone veneer The The interior trim board joints should adopt the clear seam or the pressure bar to deal with, for seamless processing, should be strictly according to the caulking process to operate, choose a high self-adhesive ability and strength, a certain toughness and better construction performance Seam and seam.
Activities in the room wall or ceiling to be fixed or hanging heavy objects, should be pre-embedded in the box liner.
Insulation design should ensure that the inner surface is not condensation, that is, the inner surface temperature is not lower than the ambient air dew point temperature. Condensation will make the inner surface of the envelope moist, mildew or even drip, deterioration of indoor sanitation.
The exposed position of the internal insulation structure is in the vicinity of the outer wall of the surface of the structure of the cold (hot) bridge of the site, these parts due to internal and external temperature difference is too often produce condensation phenomenon. The existence of cold (hot) bridges should be avoided in the design of internal insulation.
3 container-type activities of the living room envelope commonly used within the insulation system 3.1 color steel sandwich panel insulation system Caigang sandwich panel is the color coated steel plate and color coated steel or galvanized steel plate floor and insulation core through the bond (Or foam) composite insulation cover plate, according to the insulation core material can be divided into different hard polyurethane sandwich panels, polystyrene (or extruded polystyrene) sandwich panels and rock wool sandwich board. Caigang sandwich panels between the use of bite connection, for wet places, can be pre-high temperature in the panel surface heat PVC finish. Color steel sandwich panel insulation system is generally used for dry box box structure, the insulation performance requirements of the container is not high activity room.
3.2 keel insulation system keel insulation system is with gypsum board, fiber cement board, calcium silicate board, magnesium oxide board and other interior wall decoration board and take a kind of internal insulation. Tectonic characteristics of box structure combined with light steel structure. Thin plate light steel keel both as a structural carrier, but also as a fixed foundation for the wall panels, the outer side of the box can be dry box large ribs, flat, wall pressure plate and other cross-section form, keel is usually filled with rock wool and glass wool And other fibrous insulation materials.
3.3 composite insulation gypsum board insulation system Europe in the early 1970s began in the construction of composite insulation gypsum board insulation system, after nearly 40 years of large-scale engineering practice and test, has formed a perfect technical standards, become the mainstream of Europe Building envelope insulation system. Since 2006, the company has been introduced to China by Lafarge as a representative. The system has been published through a series of theoretical and test proofs of the construction industry, published relevant technical regulations and Atlas, and successfully applied to many projects. Composite insulation gypsum board both gypsum board decorative and insulation materials, excellent insulation properties, to achieve container-type activities, insulation materials and interior wall decorative panels of the integrated decoration to enhance the efficiency of the decoration.
3.4 Polyurethane insulation system Polyurethane insulation system is a combination of cold box foam technology and the formation of a container-type living room envelope structure of the insulation system, the main process is characterized by pre-container-type activities of the envelope of the polyurethane molding Injection of foam, thus forming the top, side, bottom and other major assembly parts, after assembly, and then the overall parts at the junction of the second foam. Polyurethane insulation system is suitable for all kinds of box structure, compared with EPS, XPS and other insulation materials have unparalleled advantages: good insulation effect Polyurethane foam thermal conductivity of 0.024W / (mK), EPS, XPS, etc. Thermal insulation materials in the thermal performance of the best insulation materials. Molded polyurethane foam can adapt to a variety of shapes cross-section, the formation of continuous and effective insulation layer, to avoid air through the gap or cavity circulation and cold (hot) bridge phenomenon.
Adhesive force strong polyurethane foam with concrete, wood, steel, Zhejiang green, rubber and other materials bonded firmly. Molded polyurethane foam can be effectively combined with the box, the interior wall decorative panels, even in the most adverse temperature and humidity, as well as their own weight, normal collision and many other factors under the influence of the insulation layer remains stable, does not appear with the box And the interior wall decoration board separation, shedding phenomenon.Container House
Better fire performance polyurethane foam added flame retardant is a kind of flame retardant, self-carbonation of the material, and no XPS, EPS fire and high temperature and droplets caused by wall defects, the fire performance can reach B2 level.
Good water resistance As the polyurethane foam is closed-cell structure, the porosity of 90%, water absorption of 4%, can be a good way to block the water and water vapor infiltration, insulation system can be maintained for a long time in a good, stable adiabatic condition.
Good anti-cracking performance Polyurethane foam is a flexible material, anti-external deformation ability, in the external force, temperature, humidity and other deformation under the action is not easy to crack, effectively ensure the stability and durability of the system.
Good environmental performance Polyurethane foam is a three-dimensional thermosetting crosslinked structure, is a chemical stability of the higher materials, the blowing agent can be used fluorine or semi-fluorine type, and thus will not produce harmful gases, not on the indoor environment And the ozone layer cause harm.
Construction of convenient molding injection of the construction can be mechanized operations, high efficiency. Polyurethane construction on the container-type mobile room shape adaptability, can all aspects of the complex parts to ensure the insulation effect.
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